Kidney Transplant: A Kidney Transplant is required by a patient who is suffering from End Stage Renal Disease. End-stage renal disease is the name for kidney failure so advanced that it cannot be reversed. The kidneys in irreversible renal failure function so poorly that they can no longer perform their function and keep the patient alive. End-stage renal disease cannot be treated with conventional medical treatments such as drugs. There are only two kinds of treatments possible, Dialysis and Kidney Transplant. Dialysis is the method of artificially filtering the blood. People who require dialysis are required to take it periodically and regularly and are generally confined to the home because of their dialysis schedule, fragile health, or both. Kidney transplantation means replacement of at least one of the the failed kidneys with a working kidney from another person, called a donor. Many people who receive a kidney transplant are able to live a similar quality of life as they did before they reached end stage renal disease. A donor is carefully chosen by the surgeons by matching Tissue and Blood so that the chances of acceptance are higher and the risk to the donor's life is minimal. Removal of the donors kidney is also now done with Robotic Arm in the few hospitals that have this facility.
Liver Transplant: Liver transplantation is the replacement of a diseased liver with a healthy liver allograft, in which the native liver is removed and replaced by the donor organ in the same anatomic location as the original liver. Liver Transplant is often recommended as an option when other modes of treatment are not successful. The purpose is to replace your diseased liver with a healthy liver. Ideally, after a transplant the patient will be free from disease, and lead a fairly normal life as long as the transplant functions. Liver transplantation nowadays is a well-accepted treatment option for end-stage liver disease and acute liver failure. Typically three surgeons and one anesthesiologist are involved, with up to four supporting nurses. The surgical procedure is very demanding and ranges from 4 to 18 hours depending on outcome. Numerous anastomoses and sutures, and many disconnections and reconnections of abdominal and hepatic tissue, must be made for the transplant to succeed, requiring an eligible recipient and a well-calibrated liver or cadaveric donor match. There are three options for liver transplantation-
Cadaver donor: The donor liver is obtained from a person who is diagnosed as brain dead, whose family volunteers to donate the organ for transplantation. People who receive cadaver donors wait on the institutional / regional list until a suitable donor becomes available. The waiting times vary.
Living donor: A healthy family member, usually a parent, sibling, or child, or someone emotionally close to you, such as a spouse, volunteers to donate part of their liver for transplantation. The donor is carefully evaluated by the team to ensure that no harm comes to the donor or recipient.
Auxiliary transplantation: Part of the liver of a healthy adult donor (living or cadaver) is transplanted into the recipient. The patient's diseased liver remains intact until the auxiliary piece regenerates and assumes function. The diseased liver may then be removed. This technique is rarely used now.
Cornea Transplant: The cornea is the clear layer on the front of the eye. A corneal transplant is surgery to replace the cornea with tissue from a donor. It is one of the most common transplants done. Injury, infection, genetic diseases and malnutrition can affect the functioning of the cornea. The cornea becomes cloudy or warped due to disease, injury or infection. A damaged cornea distorts light as it enters the eye causing decreased vision. This kind of visual impairment is called corneal blindness. This is the only type of visual impairment that can be treated by corneal transplantation. Corneal transplantation or corneal grafting, is a surgical procedure where the damaged cornea is replaced by donated corneal tissue (the graft) in its entirety (penetrating keratoplasty) or in part (lamellar keratoplasty). The graft is taken from a recently deceased individual with no known diseases or other factors that may affect the viability of the donated tissue or the health of the recipient.The surgical procedure is performed by ophthalmologist, medical doctors who specialize in eyes, and is often done on an outpatient basis.
Bone Marrow Transplants: Bone Marrow Transplantation is a form of intensive treatment used to treat certain cancers like leukemia, lymphomas and some non-cancerous diseases like thalassaemia. Bone marrow is found inside our bones, and is the 'factory' that makes blood. It is responsible for producing white blood cells (to protect against infection), red blood cells (to carry oxygen around the body) and platelets (to prevent bleeding). Stem cells are blood cells at their earliest stage of development in the bone marrow, before they have become committed to developing into white cells, red cells or platelets. It is these 'mother' cells, which are the key factors in transplantation.There are two main types of transplants - Autologous and Allogenic.
Autologous Transplants: This means that the bone marrow or stem cells used for the transplant are one's own. A little bit of the patient's bone marrow or stem cells is taken and stored before high dose treatment. When the treatment is over, the bone marrow or stem cells are given back through a vein.
Allogeneic Transplants: In this type of transplant, bone marrow donated by someone else is used. It is essential that the donor's tissue match. The most suitable donor is usually a close relative, most commonly a brother or sister. It is possible to get a good match from an unrelated donor, but this facility does not exist in India.
Cochlear Implant Surgery (EAR): Cochlear implant surgery is a boon for people with severe to profound hearing loss. The surgery not only gives them a sense of hearing and speech, it allows people with hearing loss cope better with the environment.Cochlear implant (bionic ear) is a small and complex electronic device that is surgically implanted in the inner ear to give the sense of sound in a person with severe to profound hearing loss. The hearing loss are of two types:
Heart Transplant: A Heart Transplant is done a patient with end stage heart failure or very severe Coronary Artery Disease. A brain dead donor or recently deceased person's heart is removed and implanted in to the patient after doing several blood and tissue matching to ensure least rejections. There is a large waiting period for the Heart Transplants and the donors are very few. The concept of organ donation after death (cadaver donor) is picking up in India and will still take some more years that the relatives of the deceased would voluntarily come forward for donation to save many lives.