CARDIOLOGY Treatment In India

CARDIOLOGY is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the heart as well as parts of the circulatory system. The field includes medical diagnosis and treatment of congenital heart defects, coronary artery disease, heart failure, valvular heart disease and electrophysiology.

Angiography: Diagnostic Test done under Fluoroscopy to determine the blockage in the Coronary or Peripheral Arteries. A radio-opaque agent is injected an the body and fluoroscope takes running images of the flow of that agent to determine the blockages. It is a 5-10 minute procedure done under Local Anesthesia.


Balloon Angioplasty: Balloon angioplasty of the coronary artery, or Percutaneous Transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA), was introduced in the late 1970's. PTCA is a non-surgical procedure that relieves Narrowing and obstruction of the arteries to the muscle of the heart (coronary arteries). This allows more blood and oxygen to be delivered to the heart muscle. Percutaneous coronary intervention is accomplished with a small balloon catheter inserted into an artery in the groin or arm, and advanced to the narrowing in the coronary artery. The balloon is then inflated to enlarge the narrowing in the artery. A stent is also now inserted the same way as the Balloon Catheter and expanded to the walls of the artery. Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI or PTCA) can relieve chest pain of angina, improve the prognosis of individuals with unstable angina, and minimize or stop a heart attack without having the patient undergo Open Heart coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. Time Taken : 1-2 hours or more depending on condition and number of arteries to be opened.
1-3 days after procedure.
1-2 hours or more depending on condition and number of arteries to be opened.


Heart Value Surgery: There are four valves in your heart:1)Aortic valve, 2)Mitral valve, 3)Tricuspid valve, 4)Pulmonary valve. Heart valve surgery is used to repair or replace diseased heart valves. Blood that flows between different chambers of your heart must flow through a heart valve. Blood that flows out of your heart into large arteries must flow through a heart valve. These valves open up enough so that blood can flow through. They then close, keeping blood from flowing backward.
1 week
3-4 hours


Pace Marker Implantation (PPI): A Pace Maker is implanted on the upper portion of the chest with its leads going in various chambers of heart. This is done to correct various kinds of Arrhythmias such as Brady (Slow Heart Rate) and Tachy (Very High Heart Rate) Arrhythmias. A Cardiac Pace Maker is a battery operated programmable electronic device, which is designed to deliver pulse to the heart at a programmed rate, thereby maintaining a healthy heart rhythm on those occasions when the heart rate is too low or too high.
Normally 2-4 days post implant.
1-3 hours depending on kind of device implanted.


Heart Transplant: A Heart Transplant is done a patient with end stage heart failure or very severe Coronary Artery Disease. A brain dead donor or recently deceased person's heart is removed and implanted in to the patient after doing several blood and tissue matching to ensure least rejections.There is a large waiting period for the Heart Transplants and the donors are very few. The concept of organ donation after death (cadaver donor) is picking up in India and will still take some more years that the relatives of the deceased would voluntarily come forward for donation to save many lives.
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Paediatric Cardiac Surgery: Paediatric cardiac surgery in India deals with the heart problem of new born, infants and children. Paediatric heart problems are usually present at birth i.e. are mostly congenital.Paediatric heart surgery or Child heart surgery is quite different and complex than cardiac surgery in adults. The physiology and disease process in children is different from adults. Surgeries on heart and lungs among children are the most intricate of all surgeries done on the human body. This is so particularly because of small size, tissue immaturity, high energy and metabolic requirement and immunity. Treatment Option-Treatment options depend on the disease present and the severity with various other factors. Some of the cardiac procedures done in India with success for children are Norwood procedure, Ross procedure, cardiac transplant, Neonatal repairs, Arterial switch, VAD, ECMO and so on.There are various techniques to perform pediatric heart surgery, depending upon the heart defect the child is suffering from and the medical condition and age of the patient. Besides, the defects can be inside the heart or in large blood vessels outside the heart. Sometimes, one surgery may be enough to repair the defect, but sometimes a series of procedures are required to completely correct the defect. Three different techniques are used to fix congenital heart defects in children described as below:

  • Open-heart surgery is when the surgeon uses a heart-lung bypass machine. It is done under general anesthesia.
    • Incision is made through the breastbone (sternum).
    • Tubes are used to re-route the blood through a special pump called a heart-lung bypass machine. This machine adds oxygen to the blood and keeps the blood warm and moving through the rest of the body while the surgeon is repairing the heart.
    • Using the machine allows the heart to be stopped. Stopping the heart makes it possible to repair the heart muscle itself, the heart valves, or the blood vessels outside the heart. After the repair is done, the heart is started again, and the machine is removed. The breastbone and the skin incisions are then closed.
  • Thoracotomy- Also known as closed heart surgery, during this type of surgery, the incision is made on the side of the chest, between the ribs. This type of surgery is done using special instruments and a camera.
  • The other technique uses small tubes to be inserted in the heart through an artery in the leg. Only some heart defects can be repaired this way.